Highlights of Musical

About the works

The Coming Decline of Frevo

Tambourine Playing in Brazil

The African Influence in Brazilian Music

Frevo Steps and Music

Art and Artists

In Terms of Music from São Paulo

A Mistaken Analysis of a Brazilian Rhythm

Scales in Brazilian Folk Music

The Indians of Petrópolis

Índios or Cabôcos of Petrópolis

Notes on Playing Marbles

Variations on the Boi

Variations on the Baião

Variations on the Maxixe



Highlights of Musical Development

Text from the Catalog of Works in 1971.

1.     Until the end of the composition course made with Newton Pádua, the pieces of this initial phase have shown vague national characters in the melody only. The composer had excluded about 20 pieces from his catalog. Remains the Suíte Infantil
n.1, from 1942, that was immediately edited and became very well known by the beginners class all over Brazil. As a matter of fact the piece initially had a sixth movement called ‘Fanfarra’, inspired in the sounds of bugles that announced the balls of ‘João Caetano’ theatre in carnival parties.

When requested the piece to the Kosmos edition, Lourenço Fernandez, who was a director for ‘Irmãos Vitale’ editions, suggested the composer to suppress the movement for no reason whatsoever.

2.     After attending in 1944, the private course of H.J. Koellreutter – the only person who came to Brazil to give information on contemporary music at that period of time, he started to adopt, a few months later, the twelve-tone technique and from that moment on, his work became extremely unstable regarding a very complex rhythm. At that time the composer did not have any nationalizing concern. His aesthetic thought can be summarized as follows: a motive, a chord or a rhythm should never be made exactly or approximately twice; therefore any repetition, equal or resembling, would be a mere primarism. Unsolving problems come out from the exaggerated concept, particularly in what concerns to the rhythm, therefore become evident the impression of lack of formal unit. One of the most representative pieces of those days is the Quarteto Misto, from 1945, whose difficulties, almost without support in tempo, turn its performance impossible to be played in Rio de Janeiro as well as in Buenos Aires. The Quarteto Misto is something like the painting of Kandinsky, which the composer saw in those days in an exposition at the Askanasy Gallery. However the twelve-tone technique acts only to guarantee the atonality, never a real constructive value in its whole.

3.  To compensate this ‘freedom’, this ‘free’ creation that is nothing more than the extremely organized disorder where the series of twelve-tones alone are presented once, becoming impossible to be found complete or almost complete, in elapsing of piece, the composer tries for the first time the elaboration of series constructed symmetrical. This can be found in 1945 in Música n. 1 for piano, in which in the first movement the melodic fragments are a constant coming and going of lines in opposition, ascending lines and then descending ones, that would be a way of treating the form. By the way, this game of energies, mainly between the highest voice and the lowest one, was already appearing since Música para violino e piano, from 1944. It is useful to inform that the word ‘Music’ has the meaning equivalent to ‘Sonata’.

We can examine the series of Música n. 1 for piano, whose symmetry designates two aspects: the one that, up to the sixth sound, starts from the interval of sixth to the fifth, from this one to the fourth, third and second; and the one that, from the seventh sound

(Eb) reproduces by contrary motion the previous part.                            

These series make a coherent harmonic accomplishment possible, above all, acoustically acceptable for ‘less advanced’ ears.



4. However, as the criteria of the symmetrical series was not enough to the intentions of the composer, - as for instance, the pseudododecaphony - a new way was tried, when he inserted in the Andante of the string Trio from 1945, melodic contours that, even vaguely, suggested the Brazilian Modinha. The suggestion is distant, and it takes the composer to narrow its relations to his drawers and painters friends, in search of analogies. The composer himself tries some drawings (Honorable Mention in the I Exposition of Plastic Artists from Petropolis city) and finds indications encouraging to be tested in the composition. He also tries to make the acceptance of music possible by simplifying it for those who don’t know dodecaphony. He then created tonal centers in the melodies and writes, similar chords with classic harmony. From then on some influence of the painting of Portinari (lines) and Di Cavalcanti (colors) vaguely appears in his music.

5. In 1946 he wrote Symphony N. 1 for small orchestra, using a more accessible twelve-tone series, now non symmetrical. And this seems to translate some process with the objective of nationalizing the dodecaphony. He uses, although still timidly, figures of the popularesco music rhythm (transl. note: popularesco = low quality popular music), that is what he knows from the so called ‘popular music’ of consumption, written with the purpose of phonographic sale and incomes from performing rights. It is important to say that although this Symphony N. 1 is qualified by London’s BBC Division of Music as a ‘highly expressive composition’; whereas Hermann Scherchen would give the opinion to the composer later on about the ‘abundance of timbres’, something that in his thoughts could harm the form of posterior compositions, if he exceeded from this point. H.J. Koellreutter notices immediately, when he read the score, the intention of the author and gets excited with the idea, believing that it was the most viable way at the time, so that the composer could move away from the cliché that, by the way was turning Brazilian music mediocre at that time. He had some reason. Except for some rare cases, the composers already were repeating themselves a lot. The pieces had new titles but the composers were repeating things they have already written years before that, while the folklore - defenseless as always, at the reach of funny deformations - was pointed out as the responsible for our deficiencies. Poor folklore! (And was it really the folklore?).

6.  After Symphony N. 1, the nationalizing intention starts from the series itself; and the dodecaphony is each time more distant. Huge discussions happen with Mozart de Araújo about the problem of the ‘national characteristic’ in Brazilian music. He is so sure about the deceptive possibility of conciliating a certain type of dodecaphony with elements of the popular music, that he composes – trying to prove it to Mozart de Araújo - the Suite (before Three pieces) for acoustic guitar, introducing in the piece remote suggestions of popularesco music.

Now the Brazilian rhythm becomes essential, even so diluted: Ponteado (before Ponteio), Acalanto and Choro.

The moving away from the the twelve-tone technique is each time more present,  the composer gets to write a piece based on no series, even so atonal: the Suíte em Fanfarra, also from 1946, for 9 brasses and ‘American’ drums, typical of dance orchestras.

7.  The Duo for flute and violin was composed in 1947, with a dynamic rhythm, as some paintings of Augusto Rodrigues, is plenty of formal unit and, something that is important, certain communicability. He considers this piece even today (1971) one of his bests. The series are almost symmetrical, from twelve notes, in which three are repeated in the second part, will result in a nine sounds series. Notice that in the second part the notes Eb, D and G, already appear in the first one. The scale pitch is not taken into consideration in the repetitions.

In the Peça pra dois minutos (Piece for Two Minutes) for piano, still in 1947, the starting point was the construction of melodic cells. Therefore the series consists of 10 sounds only - 9 in the cells and an independent one.


There is each time more insistence in the objectivity of ‘nationalized’ melodic contours, also by means of the creation of tonal centers. The pieces get slowly more accessible at least relatively speaking. They continue the discussions with Mozart de Araújo. However, the lacking of satisfaction continues. As a period of crisis in composing starts, he reformulates some of his pieces, especially those that show more rhythmic dilution.

8.     At the end from 1947 he wrote Música n. 1 and Música n. 2 for single violin. Again without nationalizing concerns, in order to try a new type of series elaborated in three sound chords, being up to the to the composer to use indifferently, the first, the second or the third sound of each chord, or even to alternate them if necessary. He looks for a merely plastic sense for the melodies, as in a cubist drawing where the lines are the only thing to take into account. There is a clear return to the hermetism. The series of Música n. 1 for violin:

9.     But the reaction to the hermetism does not take longer and in 1949 he creates a series of eighteen notes harmonic conceived, so that one common note (G, in the example) remains for a while; and another common note (C, in the example) continues identifiable for the ear. It would be a very vague type of ‘dominant’ and ‘tonic’. Not as a return to the tonal functions or so, but as a possibility of knowing it by heart by the listener. It occurs in the Suite for flute and clarinet, whose movements are as follows: Obstinado, Canção, Polca, Marcha Fúnebre, Variations and End.

The composer recognizing that it lacks to his piece the necessary social direction –that Mário de Andrade refers to in the ‘Ensaio’ - ends the ‘dodecaphonic’ phase here, despite the career that some compositions were making abroad, where the registered errors of judgment in the history of music are numerous. If he wanted to contribute to Brazilian music in terms of national culture, he should have had a more humble attitude, and this humbleness would consist in starting everything all over again. Thus it should have been done; therefore what really matters is not exactly the composer, a mere accident, but music itself.

10. In 1949 begins a new period of crisis in composition. He tries a small piece for piano (that was lost), according to less pretentious concepts of national classical music and more at the reach of the majority. That is when some questions appear as follows:

1. How avoid being attracted to the orbit of Villa-Lobos? This musician lived himself the Choro (style of typical urban music); He knew it like few others did.

2. Had the Choro style expression enough to resist to time and remain popular for such lasting period as pleases to national classical music?

3.     In case the foreseen decadence of Choro and its fast disappearance happened, the pieces inspired in it would not seem anachronic to the generations yet to come that did not live this type of urban popular music? However, it is known that the remaining composers, some more, others less, orbited around Villa-Lobos’ richness personality; and the northeastern style of other composers was limited to a few formulas only in terms of melody. Old formulas that were being already used - something that did not change until today, 1971.

Regarding the incredible poor rhythm in a country where the variety is incalculable.

The solution seemed to be in the populario (transl. note: populario = designates popular traces that belong to the people like tales, poetry, legends etc...) that had not been used yet in the stylization of the classical composers - populario of any part of the country, it does not matter which, but necessarily new. It has a good perspective: Recife city (capital of Pernanbuco state). Mozart de Araújo insists that the composer goes to know its music personally.

11. In June from 1949 he had the valuable chance to know the city of Recife, famous for its wonderful reputation concerning popular music, that exceeded his best expectations. Stimulated by the environment, he wrote the Suite for quartet or string orchestra, using more direct popular elements, although this was still a result of bibliographical consultations and some popularesca music printed. One can notice in it the sound of gongué (popular instrument), observed in the stylized Maracatus  (style of regional Brazilian music) of composer Capiba; He writes down the notes of an advertisement that a boy, an ambulant salesman, shouts in the street and as he arrives to his hotel room, he writes a Modinha (style of music), tries to stylize the Frevo (typical local folk music) heard in the radio, played with the wrong tempo, as imitated from Rio de Janeiro radio stations. He agreed later on with opinion expressed in a review written by D’ Or about the sound material. D' Or writes: ‘Approaching familiar rhythms to the popular music of Pernambuco (state of Brazil), in such way he shuffled them of its inventiveness, that we, who know them so well, could not feel much of the reality where he intended to search inspiration’. However, the result seems promising, moreover if we take into account the lack of a more precise information on more authentic popular music. The discussions with Mozart de Araújo became more peaceful at that time and they began to understand each other.

12. He returns to Rio De Janeiro in the following month and feels the emptiness of the disinformation on our musical traditions. However, as he used to play mandolin, acoustic guitar and fiddle in his childhood - that is how people called the violin - and had participated of some choros (small ensemble) from Petrópolis city, including the most famous - ‘Choro do Carvalhinho’, directed by a local barber, to whom he is family related, he uses this period of time to produce a few pieces that deserve no remark.

13. In December 1949 only, he moves and lives in the city of Recife for a period of three years. He watches the carnival from 1950, when he has the opportunity to hear - in the streets and mainly in the ‘praçinha’ (little square) - the most authentic performers of Frevo, as well as the ones of the other styles like Maracatu, the cabocolinhos, the bumba-meu-boi (that is also played at that time of the year), etc. As he receives the first impressions, they begin to be interpreted in his own way. (It is understood that the examples shown here refer only to the main melody. They lack, therefore, of those elements that would normally come to complete the whole of the ideas).

In Música n. 1  for piano, Frevo is present in the final movement.

In the first movement of the Sonata for violin and piano, the melody (in the violin, in following excerpt), summarizes the general elements of the predominantly modal melody from Pernambuco; whereas the accompaniment (left hand of the piano) synthesizes the rhythmic basis of the zabumba (great drum) playing, in the Coco dance (local dance) as it is performed by Pernambuco local inhabitants, as can be registered in songs Olinda and Paulista.

In the third movement of the same piece, the musical phrase of the extremely high pitch piccolo flute of the cabocolinhos recifenses is copied (right hand of the piano). Although in this manifestation of popular music successively intervals of fourth do not occur, the interesting thing for that moment was only the spirit of the suggested material.

The violin reminds another play of the referred piccolo and the left hand of the piano articulates the rhythmic basis bass drum of the ‘baiano’ of the cabocolinhos, in its most simple form.

Material of this and the Polca’s nature in concertina of eight basses is better used in Trio n. 2 for brasses.

14. However, feeling that he was not identified with local popular music and anxious to collect as much as possible of folkloric material, he interrupts his artistic production after writing the above mentioned pieces and Sonatina N. 1 for piano. He dedicated a part of his time then to the specialized bibliography and once in a while he visits other cities besides those already previously mentioned: Iguaçu, Jaboatão, São Lourenço, Limoeiro, Santo Antão, Garanhuns and the main and most representative interior city: Caruaru. The collected material contains Maracatu (old and ‘modern’ or ‘of trombone’ - according to the local people), Cabocolinhos, Bumba-meu-boi, Xangô, Catimbó, Coco, Pastoril, Zabumba (typical ensemble), Reza-de-defunto (excelências and benditos), Proclamations, rhythmic chants of ambulant salesmen (for example, the play of triangle combined with the steps of the caminhante) and observes the Frevo more closely; as well as he gets diverse material according to the circumstances, everything directly from popular sources. Composition, the main reason for this collection had been forgotten. Voluntarily forgotten. It worthwhile mentioning that without the ‘fights’ with Mozart de Araújo all of this would have taken much more time to be accomplished, or perhaps would not become accomplished like this.

The friend, however, does not question the problem of waiting time that the composer would need to start to assimilate, in terms of identification of the possible ideal, of the rich populário of Recife. Anyway, the discussions with Mozart, get to an end and the only way to exchange ideas and information at that moment was through letters. In the middle of the musical activities he read again the book ‘Os Sertões’, by Euclides da Cunha, in whose first reading (1941) he did not get its meaning. And fortunately, he read it carefully, the ‘Manifesto Regionalista from 1926’, (Regionalist Manifesto from 1926 released by the northeasters intellectual gathered in Recife at that time. This reading - and other pieces by many writers, mainly national – is the fact that cheers up the composer’s work that fully dedicates to the research of the folksong then.

15. He moves to the city of São Paulo in early 1953. Thanks to the valuable help of Rossini Tavares de Lima secretary of São Paulo Commission of Folklore, he watched in the capital and in the interior manifestations of São Paulo popular music, writing down as much as he could: Cururu, Jongo, Tambu, Cateretê, Samba-lento, Folia de Reis, Congada, Moçambique, Dança de São Gonçalo, Dança de Santa Cruz, etc.

The contrasts and the similarities between the music of São Paulo and Pernambuco are very clear. From then on, he could not only mention the contrasts and similarities, but also ‘feel’ them. The opinions of the composer coincide with the ones of his São Paulo friend Rossini Tavares de Lima, who contributed very much for his musicological formation in the folklore studies field.

16. The identification with the most genuine popular music improves a lot in 1954. He decided to test this identification composing pieces that are almost as a development is to the photographic art. And why not? It worthwhile to outline that it is not about photograph as those small pictures used in personal documents; but artistic photograph in the sense that the source of the sonorous material (it means, what is focused) either in terms of art enough recognizable or pre sensed by the non-specialist listener in such problems. And this is different then ‘copying the folklore’, as sometimes people comment around. So, It was necessary to make it, even taking into consideration at that time not only the lacking of confidence from those who intended to make an universal art; despite the constant malicious misunderstanding from those who find ‘politics color’ in every person who ‘goes down’ where the people is to better understand its most genuine manifestations.

After all, the folklore is the most universal thing in the world. As universal as love, as the crying and smiling of a child, the feeling of hunger and death, as well as ‘all the cultural, spiritual and material manifestations of the people’, as written by Luís da Câmara Cascudo

The composer then works especially in suites to demarcate the popular elements according to the sources of origin, while he tries to obtain the adequate way to the purposes of that time, getting ready for enterprises of larger scale. He remembers Mário de Andrade when he says that ‘in the countries where the culture appears as a loan as in North America, either the individual as the nationalized art have to go through three phases:

1ª - the phase of the national thesis; 2ª - the phase of the national feeling;

3ª - the phase of the national unconsciousness’ (Essay About the Brazilian Music).

Then the one responsible for this writing believes to be starting exactly the first one of the phases. Why? Some questions appear.

1. Was this phase - of the national thesis, where the composer of these notes places himself- a ‘useless return’ the Nepomuceno and Gallet?

2. Did the above mentioned composers go so deep in the experiences so that they have said the last word on the subject?

3. The resources that are currently available of the ways of expression - plus the technical-sociological knowledge, in technological terms – were so limited as they were 40 years before?

4. And ‘nationalistic’ music as attitude - a time where many countries are conquering its political, economic and cultural independence, would be, as some groups of Brazil and abroad say, an ‘wasted’, ‘anachronic’ and ‘unnatural’ itinerary?

And what could be said about Beethoven? Amongst music en vogue in the German/Austrians halls, and perfectly Germanized, it can be mentioned about 100 compositions written by him under the name of ‘Viennese Waltz’, ‘Contradança’ (Counter dance), ‘Tyrolese’, ‘Scottish’, ‘Polish’, ‘March’, etc. Wagner that criticized him so much for having composed such pieces forgot that in his own repertoire there are many Marches and Lieds, despite the fact that he does not call them so. Mozart did not do differently for he wrote 25 ‘Dances’, 9 ‘Marches’, ‘Counter dance’, ‘Waltzes’ and 33 pieces of the suite style, such as Cassações (that is, Farewells), Serenades and Divertimentos, in a total approximately 205 movements – without mentioning theatrical pieces qualified as ‘Operettas’ and ‘Comedies’, etc. Whoever examines Beethoven’s counter dance, can notice that they were not very different from the music played in the halls of his time except for the talent and technical ability of the composer. And such dances came from a popular origin with the duly stylization for the halls. It is known that Debussy was so aware of his role in the French culture that he insisted to stand out his nationality by signing his name as ‘Debussy, French Composer’.

On the other hand, the national conscience would not lack to the Austrian Anton Werbern who, on a certain occasion where he talked with Dallapicola, fiercely censored Kurt Weill for getting distant from the ‘Germanic traditions’.

And modernly, the each time more remarkable ascension of Bartók and Villa-Lobos in the international scenario seems to affirm that the fidelity to popular music does not stop the composer from making a piece of considerable value and with a full international acceptance. The problem is, with no doubt, how to make it.

17. The only thing left is to detail and to extend the national thesis proposed by Mário de Andrade, adapting it to the knowledge that we already have today of the Brazilian populário.

1.       The material – They are elements as the melodic, harmonic constancies (if it exists or implied), eventual polyphony, rhythms, etc. Everything under a determined general characteristic as for instance.:

The music based on the Cabocolinhos recifenses had to be made necessarily with proper elements; the one based on the São Paulo Jongo will be then, something different but equally coherent.

2.       The Selection – Consists of the choice of the material concerning its aspects to be outlined, according to the composer’s view of one or other popular manifestation in determined piece. For instance: the simple play of one gongué (musical instrument) could supply the main idea for a musical part, as well as the baião-de-viola (rhythmic pedal in the bass range of the instrument); or then, in another style of music, one detail as the over extended chord out of the popular choirs from São Paulo, as it is heard in the Folia de Reis, the Congada, Moçambique, etc. On the other hand, remains the form of the music. If the original source does not provide adequate formal suggestions to the piece, it is up to the composer to invent the one that is similar to the original. It is necessary that everything occurs favorably for the most complete accomplishment of the piece.

3.       The elaboration - It is summarized as the formal balance, raised in the terms of artistic values. Stylization in high level, but in order to allow (or to previously sense) that the characteristics of what is stylized appears in the piece. If it does not happen the previous selection would have been in vain. If, as Mario de Andrade use to say, this phase is still the social one, there is only left to the composer to know how to use his talent

in a more direct elaboration.

18. In the following musical examples the composer intends to deal exactly with aesthetic problems as he had previously made in short when working with his ‘dodecaphony’. Now the problem is restricted to the social aspect of music. It is perhaps only by means of the persistence in dealing with the popular values in a more direct form, that in the future, it will be obtained what is lacking to the Brazilian music in formation: the classical tradition.

Movements of Suíte n. 2 – Nordestina for piano.

Movements from Suite n. 3 – Paulista for piano..

(In the Jongo and the Tambu: the accompaniment is the main factor, that drifts from the popular source itself in the composition, with its rhythm of undeniable dynamism and even sometimes, violent).

In the very same orientation there are symphonic suites (Paulista and Pernambucana); the Três Peças for viola and piano; as well as the

A Inúbia do Cabocolinho, a more or less incidental piece. (‘Inúbia’ - the super treble piccolo of the Cabocolinhos recifenses, whose performance demands an extraordinary technique). One could say that the composer intends to be ‘more realistic than the king’, in this retake of the national thesis proposed by Mario de Andrade. And, if this happens, let it be with dignity, with artistic value that convinces to those who think contrarily!

19. In Quarteto n. 2 for strings, from 1948, the nature of the piece justifies a certain lacking of obligation of the principles previously displayed, although remains - evidently - at least ‘the photographic’ identification regarding the sound material. In this piece still the visual ‘Allegro of sonata’ is replaced by the extended form of the São Paulo Cateretê. The form only, because the content is in the northeastern style; and in this case, one thing has nothing to do with the other. They make it possible the substitution of the contrasting elements of the Cateretê themselves: the Rasqueado (rhythmic-harmonic play of ‘Brazilian’ viola, viola caipira – a type of a country acoustic guitar); the Moda (the two voices chant, of soloist and his ‘second’); the Palmeado and the Sapateado –tap dancing- (necessarily rhythmic elements); e the Recortado (choir chant in thirds, in an upper tempo). Suggests sections more or less equivalents (not analogous) to the ones of the development of the classic bi-thematic Sonata, however more naive because of the themes. Therefore to introduce country or hillbillies themes in ‘allegro of Sonata’ would be the same that to wear in a provincial person, with all its rustic simplicity and customs, with a refined tuxedo.

20. When collecting popular music from the north coast of São Paulo state (Ilhabela, São Sebastião, Caraguatatuba e Ubatuba) He met, in 1960, not only the sound of the local fiddle play as a large number of songs in the popular voice, with different rhythmic accompaniment from those previously known by the researchers. The melodies are, in part of modal structure, however they are from a different modalism then the ones in northeast; and the harmonic accompaniment (violas - a type of a country acoustic guitar) follows the style of the melodies, many of them modulating and that closely remind Slavic popular music.

In Sinfonia n. 2 – Brasília, this is stylized, by hearing in the choir interventions that derive from the popular choirs of São Paulo, as in the example of the Folia de Reis, Congada, Moçambique, etc. The vision of popular music remains during the entire piece. If it is not identified by the listener who is unaware of such source of origin, at least it can be felt.

When the first hearing of Sinfonia n. 2 – Brasília occurred at the Municipal Theater of Rio De Janeiro, not all the musical critics were favorable, in virtue of being music of program, reason why some critics find a trace of ‘demagogy’ -  forgetting that the piece is composed for a contest, which allowed the use of literary text. About the composition Eurico Nogueira França wrote, that the percussion instruments, are the same ones of symphonic orchestra: ‘… the agile use of percussion that sometimes sounds even as soloist, acquiring melodic value, are some of the elements that make this atmosphere recognizably ours, without any intention of ostensive nationalism, and that before we feel these short and incident themes as ours, because they make an effort in a sense of  a continuing, daring, taming effort, that in our spirit, link that adventure of the construction of the monumental city in the virgin heart of Brazil… But the entire piece is remarkable for its simple originality that has sort of a wasteland aspect and within polyphony of high technical price, for its wholeness and intimate unit’. And Ayres de Andrade opines: ‘Being a good apostle of the nationalist aesthetic planting roots in the traditions of popular music, to these traditions he (the composer) reoccur with frequency, such circumstance that the composer does try to dissimulate, seeming to take a certain pride out of it, but keeping always the care of being original in the memory of the models where he inspires himself’.

21. The Trio for violin, violoncello and piano, that he wrote immediately after finishing writing Brasilia and equally intended to a competition, in the end from 1960, continues in the characterization line of the living colors. It worthwhile to transcribe the excerpt of the reviewer Andrade Muricy: ‘Serious Piece, of strong colors, and that I judge as of a rare artisan domain, among our composers. Over all noteworthy for having known how to avoid the picturesque itself, the effectism of the popularesca seduction’.

22. He stopped composing for a period of seven years. Already living in Rio De Janeiro in 1967, he restarted to compose by writing Sonata N. 2

for piano, that is a kind of a continuation of the spirit of Brasilia concerning to the rhythm. But the dynamics seems to flow even better, with great tension in the faster movements. This treatment somehow at ease, seems to find better accomplishment in the Sonata for acoustic guitar, from 1969 - perhaps the first Sonata composed for this instrument in Brazil.

* * * * *

To abide to the national thesis at this time of philosophical mistakes, is a humbleness that requires an inglorious courage. It is like to create a child in the hope - and only this - that tomorrow he or she becomes useful to the collectivity.