Highlights of Musical
About the works
The Coming Decline of Frevo
Tambourine Playing in Brazil
The African Influence in Brazilian Music
Frevo Steps and Music
Art and Artists
In Terms of Music from São Paulo
A Mistaken Analysis of a Brazilian Rhythm
Scales in Brazilian Folk Music
The Indians of Petrópolis
Índios or Cabôcos of Petrópolis
Notes on Playing Marbles
Variations on the Boi
Variations on the Baião
Variations on the Maxixe
Highlights of Musical Development
Text from the Catalog of Works in 1971.
1. Until the end of the composition course
made with Newton Pádua, the pieces of this initial phase have
shown vague national characters in the melody only. The composer
had excluded about 20 pieces from his catalog. Remains the Suíte
n.1, from 1942, that was immediately edited and became
very well known by the beginners class all over Brazil. As a matter
of fact the piece initially had a sixth movement called ‘Fanfarra’,
inspired in the sounds of bugles that announced the balls of ‘João
Caetano’ theatre in carnival parties.
When requested the piece to the Kosmos edition, Lourenço Fernandez,
who was a director for ‘Irmãos Vitale’ editions, suggested the
composer to suppress the movement for no reason whatsoever.
2. After attending in 1944, the
private course of H.J. Koellreutter – the only person who came
to Brazil to give information on contemporary music at that period
of time, he started to adopt, a few months later, the twelve-tone
technique and from that moment on, his work became extremely unstable
regarding a very complex rhythm. At that time the composer did
not have any nationalizing concern. His aesthetic thought can
be summarized as follows: a motive, a chord or a rhythm should
never be made exactly or approximately twice; therefore any repetition,
equal or resembling, would be a mere primarism. Unsolving problems
come out from the exaggerated concept, particularly in what concerns
to the rhythm, therefore become evident the impression of lack
of formal unit. One of the most representative pieces of those
days is the Quarteto Misto, from 1945, whose difficulties,
almost without support in tempo, turn its performance impossible
to be played in Rio de Janeiro as well as in Buenos Aires. The
Quarteto Misto is something like the painting of Kandinsky,
which the composer saw in those days in an exposition at the Askanasy
Gallery. However the twelve-tone technique acts only to guarantee
the atonality, never a real constructive value in its whole.
3. To compensate this ‘freedom’, this ‘free’ creation that is nothing
more than the extremely organized disorder where the series of
twelve-tones alone are presented once, becoming impossible to
be found complete or almost complete, in elapsing of piece, the
composer tries for the first time the elaboration of series constructed
symmetrical. This can be found in 1945 in Música n. 1 for
piano, in which in the first movement the melodic fragments are
a constant coming and going of lines in opposition, ascending
lines and then descending ones, that would be a way of treating
the form. By the way, this game of energies, mainly between the
highest voice and the lowest one, was already appearing since
Música para violino e piano, from 1944. It is useful to
inform that the word ‘Music’ has the meaning equivalent to ‘Sonata’.
We can examine the series of Música n. 1 for piano, whose symmetry
designates two aspects: the one that, up to the sixth sound, starts
from the interval of sixth to the fifth, from this one to the
fourth, third and second; and the one that, from the seventh sound
(Eb) reproduces by contrary motion the previous part.
These series make a coherent harmonic accomplishment possible,
above all, acoustically acceptable for ‘less advanced’ ears.
4. However, as the criteria of the symmetrical series was not enough to
the intentions of the composer, - as for instance, the pseudododecaphony
- a new way was tried, when he inserted in the Andante of the
string Trio from 1945, melodic contours that, even vaguely, suggested
the Brazilian Modinha. The suggestion is distant, and it
takes the composer to narrow its relations to his drawers and
painters friends, in search of analogies. The composer himself
tries some drawings (Honorable Mention in the I Exposition of
Plastic Artists from Petropolis city) and finds indications encouraging
to be tested in the composition. He also tries to make the acceptance
of music possible by simplifying it for those who don’t know dodecaphony.
He then created tonal centers in the melodies and writes, similar
chords with classic harmony. From then on some influence of the
painting of Portinari (lines) and Di Cavalcanti (colors) vaguely
appears in his music.
5. In 1946 he wrote Symphony N. 1 for small orchestra, using a more accessible
twelve-tone series, now non symmetrical. And this seems to translate
some process with the objective of nationalizing the dodecaphony.
He uses, although still timidly, figures of the popularesco
music rhythm (transl. note: popularesco = low quality popular
music), that is what he knows from the so called ‘popular
music’ of consumption, written with the purpose of phonographic
sale and incomes from performing rights. It is important to say
that although this Symphony N. 1 is qualified by London’s BBC
Division of Music as a ‘highly expressive composition’; whereas
Hermann Scherchen would give the opinion to the composer later
on about the ‘abundance of timbres’, something that in his thoughts
could harm the form of posterior compositions, if he exceeded
from this point. H.J. Koellreutter notices immediately, when he
read the score, the intention of the author and gets excited with
the idea, believing that it was the most viable way at the time,
so that the composer could move away from the cliché that, by
the way was turning Brazilian music mediocre at that time. He
had some reason. Except for some rare cases, the composers already
were repeating themselves a lot. The pieces had new titles but
the composers were repeating things they have already written
years before that, while the folklore - defenseless as always,
at the reach of funny deformations - was pointed out as the responsible
for our deficiencies. Poor folklore! (And was it really the folklore?).
6. After Symphony N. 1, the nationalizing intention starts from the series
itself; and the dodecaphony is each time more distant. Huge discussions
happen with Mozart de Araújo about the problem of the ‘national
characteristic’ in Brazilian music. He is so sure about the deceptive
possibility of conciliating a certain type of dodecaphony with
elements of the popular music, that he composes – trying to prove
it to Mozart de Araújo - the Suite (before Three pieces)
for acoustic guitar, introducing in the piece remote suggestions
of popularesco music.
Now the Brazilian rhythm becomes essential, even so diluted: Ponteado
(before Ponteio), Acalanto and Choro.
The moving away from the the twelve-tone technique is each time more present,
the composer gets to write a piece based on no series, even so
atonal: the Suíte em Fanfarra, also from 1946, for 9 brasses
and ‘American’ drums, typical of dance orchestras.
7. The Duo for flute and violin was composed in 1947, with a dynamic rhythm,
as some paintings of Augusto Rodrigues, is plenty of formal unit
and, something that is important, certain communicability. He
considers this piece even today (1971) one of his bests. The series
are almost symmetrical, from twelve notes, in which three are
repeated in the second part, will result in a nine sounds series.
Notice that in the second part the notes Eb, D and G, already
appear in the first one. The scale pitch is not taken into consideration
in the repetitions.
In the Peça pra dois minutos (Piece for Two Minutes) for
piano, still in 1947, the starting point was the construction
of melodic cells. Therefore the series consists of 10 sounds only
- 9 in the cells and an independent one.
There is each time more insistence in the objectivity of ‘nationalized’
melodic contours, also by means of the creation of tonal centers.
The pieces get slowly more accessible at least relatively speaking.
They continue the discussions with Mozart de Araújo. However,
the lacking of satisfaction continues. As a period of crisis in
composing starts, he reformulates some of his pieces, especially
those that show more rhythmic dilution.
8. At the end from 1947 he wrote
Música n. 1 and Música n. 2 for single violin. Again
without nationalizing concerns, in order to try a new type of
series elaborated in three sound chords, being up to the to the
composer to use indifferently, the first, the second or the third
sound of each chord, or even to alternate them if necessary. He
looks for a merely plastic sense for the melodies, as in a cubist
drawing where the lines are the only thing to take into account.
There is a clear return to the hermetism. The series of Música
n. 1 for violin:
9. But the reaction to the hermetism
does not take longer and in 1949 he creates a series of eighteen
notes harmonic conceived, so that one common note (G, in the example)
remains for a while; and another common note (C, in the example)
continues identifiable for the ear. It would be a very vague type
of ‘dominant’ and ‘tonic’. Not as a return to the tonal functions
or so, but as a possibility of knowing it by heart by the listener.
It occurs in the Suite for flute and clarinet, whose movements
are as follows: Obstinado, Canção, Polca, Marcha Fúnebre,
Variations and End.
The composer recognizing
that it lacks to his piece the necessary social direction –that
Mário de Andrade refers to in the ‘Ensaio’ - ends the ‘dodecaphonic’
phase here, despite the career that some compositions were making
abroad, where the registered errors of judgment in the history
of music are numerous. If he wanted to contribute to Brazilian
music in terms of national culture, he should have had a more
humble attitude, and this humbleness would consist in starting
everything all over again. Thus it should have been done; therefore
what really matters is not exactly the composer, a mere accident,
but music itself.
10. In 1949 begins
a new period of crisis in composition. He tries a small piece
for piano (that was lost), according to less pretentious concepts
of national classical music and more at the reach of the majority.
That is when some questions appear as follows:
1. How avoid being attracted to the orbit of Villa-Lobos? This musician
lived himself the Choro (style of typical urban music);
He knew it like few others did.
2. Had the Choro style expression enough to resist to time and remain
popular for such lasting period as pleases to national classical
3. In case the foreseen decadence
of Choro and its fast disappearance happened, the pieces inspired
in it would not seem anachronic to the generations yet to come
that did not live this type of urban popular music? However, it
is known that the remaining composers, some more, others less,
orbited around Villa-Lobos’ richness personality; and the northeastern
style of other composers was limited to a few formulas only in
terms of melody. Old formulas that were being already used - something
that did not change until today, 1971.
Regarding the incredible poor rhythm in a country where the variety is
The solution seemed to be in the populario (transl. note:
populario = designates popular traces that belong to the
people like tales, poetry, legends etc...) that had not been used
yet in the stylization of the classical composers - populario
of any part of the country, it does not matter which, but necessarily
new. It has a good perspective: Recife city (capital of Pernanbuco
state). Mozart de Araújo insists that the composer goes to know
its music personally.
11. In June from
1949 he had the valuable chance to know the city of Recife, famous
for its wonderful reputation concerning popular music, that exceeded
his best expectations. Stimulated by the environment, he wrote
the Suite for quartet or string orchestra, using more direct popular
elements, although this was still a result of bibliographical
consultations and some popularesca music printed. One can notice
in it the sound of gongué (popular instrument), observed
in the stylized Maracatus (style of regional Brazilian
music) of composer Capiba; He writes down the notes of
an advertisement that a boy, an ambulant salesman, shouts in the
street and as he arrives to his hotel room, he writes a Modinha
(style of music), tries to stylize the Frevo (typical local
folk music) heard in the radio, played with the wrong tempo, as
imitated from Rio de Janeiro radio stations. He agreed later on
with opinion expressed in a review written by D’ Or about the
sound material. D' Or writes: ‘Approaching familiar rhythms to
the popular music of Pernambuco (state of Brazil), in such way
he shuffled them of its inventiveness, that we, who know them
so well, could not feel much of the reality where he intended
to search inspiration’. However, the result seems promising, moreover
if we take into account the lack of a more precise information
on more authentic popular music. The discussions with Mozart de
Araújo became more peaceful at that time and they began to understand
12. He returns to
Rio De Janeiro in the following month and feels the emptiness
of the disinformation on our musical traditions. However, as he
used to play mandolin, acoustic guitar and fiddle in his childhood
- that is how people called the violin - and had participated
of some choros (small ensemble) from Petrópolis city, including
the most famous - ‘Choro do Carvalhinho’, directed by a local
barber, to whom he is family related, he uses this period of time
to produce a few pieces that deserve no remark.
13. In December 1949
only, he moves and lives in the city of Recife for a period of
three years. He watches the carnival from 1950, when he has the
opportunity to hear - in the streets and mainly in the ‘praçinha’
(little square) - the most authentic performers of Frevo, as well
as the ones of the other styles like Maracatu, the cabocolinhos,
the bumba-meu-boi (that is also played at that time of
the year), etc. As he receives the first impressions, they begin
to be interpreted in his own way. (It is understood that the examples
shown here refer only to the main melody. They lack, therefore,
of those elements that would normally come to complete the whole
of the ideas).
In Música n. 1
for piano, Frevo is present in the final movement.
In the first movement of the Sonata for violin and piano, the
melody (in the violin, in following excerpt), summarizes the general
elements of the predominantly modal melody from Pernambuco; whereas
the accompaniment (left hand of the piano) synthesizes the rhythmic
basis of the zabumba (great drum) playing, in the Coco
dance (local dance) as it is performed by Pernambuco local inhabitants,
as can be registered in songs Olinda and Paulista.
In the third movement
of the same piece, the musical phrase of the extremely high pitch
piccolo flute of the cabocolinhos recifenses is copied
(right hand of the piano). Although in this manifestation of popular
music successively intervals of fourth do not occur, the interesting
thing for that moment was only the spirit of the suggested material.
The violin reminds
another play of the referred piccolo and the left hand of the
piano articulates the rhythmic basis bass drum of the ‘baiano’
of the cabocolinhos, in its most simple form.
Material of this
and the Polca’s nature in concertina of eight basses is better
used in Trio n. 2 for brasses.
feeling that he was not identified with local popular music and
anxious to collect as much as possible of folkloric material,
he interrupts his artistic production after writing the above
mentioned pieces and Sonatina N. 1 for piano. He dedicated
a part of his time then to the specialized bibliography and once
in a while he visits other cities besides those already previously
mentioned: Iguaçu, Jaboatão, São Lourenço, Limoeiro, Santo Antão,
Garanhuns and the main and most representative interior city:
Caruaru. The collected material contains Maracatu (old
and ‘modern’ or ‘of trombone’ - according to the local people),
Cabocolinhos, Bumba-meu-boi, Xangô, Catimbó, Coco, Pastoril,
Zabumba (typical ensemble), Reza-de-defunto (excelências
and benditos), Proclamations, rhythmic chants of ambulant
salesmen (for example, the play of triangle combined with the
steps of the caminhante) and observes the Frevo
more closely; as well as he gets diverse material according to
the circumstances, everything directly from popular sources. Composition,
the main reason for this collection had been forgotten. Voluntarily
forgotten. It worthwhile mentioning that without the ‘fights’
with Mozart de Araújo all of this would have taken much more time
to be accomplished, or perhaps would not become accomplished like
The friend, however,
does not question the problem of waiting time that the composer
would need to start to assimilate, in terms of identification
of the possible ideal, of the rich populário of Recife.
Anyway, the discussions with Mozart, get to an end and the only
way to exchange ideas and information at that moment was through
letters. In the middle of the musical activities he read again
the book ‘Os Sertões’, by Euclides da Cunha, in whose first reading
(1941) he did not get its meaning. And fortunately, he read it
carefully, the ‘Manifesto Regionalista from 1926’, (Regionalist
Manifesto from 1926 released by the northeasters intellectual
gathered in Recife at that time. This reading - and other pieces
by many writers, mainly national – is the fact that cheers up
the composer’s work that fully dedicates to the research of the
15. He moves to the city of São Paulo in early 1953. Thanks to
the valuable help of Rossini Tavares de Lima secretary of São
Paulo Commission of Folklore, he watched in the capital and in
the interior manifestations of São Paulo popular music, writing
down as much as he could: Cururu, Jongo, Tambu, Cateretê, Samba-lento,
Folia de Reis, Congada, Moçambique, Dança de São Gonçalo, Dança
de Santa Cruz, etc.
The contrasts and
the similarities between the music of São Paulo and Pernambuco
are very clear. From then on, he could not only mention the contrasts
and similarities, but also ‘feel’ them. The opinions of the composer
coincide with the ones of his São Paulo friend Rossini Tavares
de Lima, who contributed very much for his musicological formation
in the folklore studies field.
16. The identification
with the most genuine popular music improves a lot in 1954. He
decided to test this identification composing pieces that are
almost as a development is to the photographic art. And why not?
It worthwhile to outline that it is not about photograph as those
small pictures used in personal documents; but artistic photograph
in the sense that the source of the sonorous material (it means,
what is focused) either in terms of art enough recognizable or
pre sensed by the non-specialist listener in such problems. And
this is different then ‘copying the folklore’, as sometimes people
comment around. So, It was necessary to make it, even taking into
consideration at that time not only the lacking of confidence
from those who intended to make an universal art; despite the
constant malicious misunderstanding from those who find ‘politics
color’ in every person who ‘goes down’ where the people is to
better understand its most genuine manifestations.
After all, the folklore
is the most universal thing in the world. As universal as love,
as the crying and smiling of a child, the feeling of hunger and
death, as well as ‘all the cultural, spiritual and material manifestations
of the people’, as written by Luís da Câmara Cascudo
The composer then
works especially in suites to demarcate the popular elements according
to the sources of origin, while he tries to obtain the adequate
way to the purposes of that time, getting ready for enterprises
of larger scale. He remembers Mário de Andrade when he says that
‘in the countries where the culture appears as a loan as in North
America, either the individual as the nationalized art have to
go through three phases:
1ª - the phase of
the national thesis; 2ª - the phase of the national feeling;
3ª - the phase of
the national unconsciousness’ (Essay About the Brazilian Music).
Then the one responsible
for this writing believes to be starting exactly the first one
of the phases. Why? Some questions appear.
1. Was this phase
- of the national thesis, where the composer of these notes places
himself- a ‘useless return’ the Nepomuceno and Gallet?
2. Did the above
mentioned composers go so deep in the experiences so that they
have said the last word on the subject?
3. The resources
that are currently available of the ways of expression - plus
the technical-sociological knowledge, in technological terms –
were so limited as they were 40 years before?
4. And ‘nationalistic’
music as attitude - a time where many countries are conquering
its political, economic and cultural independence, would be, as
some groups of Brazil and abroad say, an ‘wasted’, ‘anachronic’
and ‘unnatural’ itinerary?
And what could be
said about Beethoven? Amongst music en vogue in the German/Austrians
halls, and perfectly Germanized, it can be mentioned about 100
compositions written by him under the name of ‘Viennese Waltz’,
‘Contradança’ (Counter dance), ‘Tyrolese’, ‘Scottish’,
‘Polish’, ‘March’, etc. Wagner that criticized him so much for
having composed such pieces forgot that in his own repertoire
there are many Marches and Lieds, despite the fact that
he does not call them so. Mozart did not do differently for he
wrote 25 ‘Dances’, 9 ‘Marches’, ‘Counter dance’, ‘Waltzes’ and
33 pieces of the suite style, such as Cassações (that is,
Farewells), Serenades and Divertimentos, in a total approximately
205 movements – without mentioning theatrical pieces qualified
as ‘Operettas’ and ‘Comedies’, etc. Whoever examines Beethoven’s
counter dance, can notice that they were not very different from
the music played in the halls of his time except for the talent
and technical ability of the composer. And such dances came from
a popular origin with the duly stylization for the halls. It is
known that Debussy was so aware of his role in the French culture
that he insisted to stand out his nationality by signing his name
as ‘Debussy, French Composer’.
On the other hand,
the national conscience would not lack to the Austrian Anton Werbern
who, on a certain occasion where he talked with Dallapicola, fiercely
censored Kurt Weill for getting distant from the ‘Germanic traditions’.
And modernly, the
each time more remarkable ascension of Bartók and Villa-Lobos
in the international scenario seems to affirm that the fidelity
to popular music does not stop the composer from making a piece
of considerable value and with a full international acceptance.
The problem is, with no doubt, how to make it.
17. The only thing
left is to detail and to extend the national thesis proposed by
Mário de Andrade, adapting it to the knowledge that we already
have today of the Brazilian populário.
1. The material – They are elements as the melodic, harmonic
constancies (if it exists or implied), eventual polyphony, rhythms,
etc. Everything under a determined general characteristic as for
The music based on the Cabocolinhos recifenses had to be made necessarily
with proper elements; the one based on the São Paulo Jongo
will be then, something different but equally coherent.
2. The Selection – Consists of the choice of the material
concerning its aspects to be outlined, according to the composer’s
view of one or other popular manifestation in determined piece.
For instance: the simple play of one gongué (musical instrument)
could supply the main idea for a musical part, as well as the
baião-de-viola (rhythmic pedal in the bass range of the
instrument); or then, in another style of music, one detail as
the over extended chord out of the popular choirs from São Paulo,
as it is heard in the Folia de Reis, the Congada,
Moçambique, etc. On the other hand, remains the form of
the music. If the original source does not provide adequate formal
suggestions to the piece, it is up to the composer to invent the
one that is similar to the original. It is necessary that everything
occurs favorably for the most complete accomplishment of the piece.
3. The elaboration - It is summarized as the formal balance, raised
in the terms of artistic values. Stylization in high level, but
in order to allow (or to previously sense) that the characteristics
of what is stylized appears in the piece. If it does not happen
the previous selection would have been in vain. If, as Mario de
Andrade use to say, this phase is still the social one, there
is only left to the composer to know how to use his talent
in a more direct
18. In the following musical examples the composer intends to deal exactly
with aesthetic problems as he had previously made in short when
working with his ‘dodecaphony’. Now the problem is restricted
to the social aspect of music. It is perhaps only by means of
the persistence in dealing with the popular values in a more direct
form, that in the future, it will be obtained what is lacking
to the Brazilian music in formation: the classical tradition.
Movements of Suíte
n. 2 – Nordestina for piano.
Movements from Suite n. 3 – Paulista for piano..
(In the Jongo
and the Tambu: the accompaniment is the main factor, that
drifts from the popular source itself in the composition, with
its rhythm of undeniable dynamism and even sometimes, violent).
In the very same
orientation there are symphonic suites (Paulista and Pernambucana);
the Três Peças for viola and piano; as well as the
A Inúbia do Cabocolinho,
a more or less incidental piece. (‘Inúbia’ - the super
treble piccolo of the Cabocolinhos recifenses, whose performance
demands an extraordinary technique). One could say that the composer
intends to be ‘more realistic than the king’, in this retake of
the national thesis proposed by Mario de Andrade. And, if this
happens, let it be with dignity, with artistic value that convinces
to those who think contrarily!
19. In Quarteto n. 2 for strings, from 1948, the nature
of the piece justifies a certain lacking of obligation of the
principles previously displayed, although remains - evidently
- at least ‘the photographic’ identification regarding the sound
material. In this piece still the visual ‘Allegro of sonata’ is
replaced by the extended form of the São Paulo Cateretê.
The form only, because the content is in the northeastern style;
and in this case, one thing has nothing to do with the other.
They make it possible the substitution of the contrasting elements
of the Cateretê themselves: the Rasqueado (rhythmic-harmonic
play of ‘Brazilian’ viola, viola caipira – a type
of a country acoustic guitar); the Moda (the two voices
chant, of soloist and his ‘second’); the Palmeado and the
Sapateado –tap dancing- (necessarily rhythmic elements);
e the Recortado (choir chant in thirds, in an upper tempo).
Suggests sections more or less equivalents (not analogous) to
the ones of the development of the classic bi-thematic Sonata,
however more naive because of the themes. Therefore to introduce
country or hillbillies themes in ‘allegro of Sonata’ would be
the same that to wear in a provincial person, with all its rustic
simplicity and customs, with a refined tuxedo.
20. When collecting
popular music from the north coast of São Paulo state (Ilhabela,
São Sebastião, Caraguatatuba e Ubatuba) He met, in 1960, not only
the sound of the local fiddle play as a large number of songs
in the popular voice, with different rhythmic accompaniment from
those previously known by the researchers. The melodies are, in
part of modal structure, however they are from a different modalism
then the ones in northeast; and the harmonic accompaniment (violas
- a type of a country acoustic guitar) follows the style of the
melodies, many of them modulating and that closely remind Slavic
In Sinfonia n.
2 – Brasília, this is stylized, by hearing in the choir interventions
that derive from the popular choirs of São Paulo, as in the example
of the Folia de Reis, Congada, Moçambique, etc. The vision
of popular music remains during the entire piece. If it is not
identified by the listener who is unaware of such source of origin,
at least it can be felt.
When the first hearing
of Sinfonia n. 2 – Brasília occurred at the Municipal Theater
of Rio De Janeiro, not all the musical critics were favorable,
in virtue of being music of program, reason why some critics
find a trace of ‘demagogy’ - forgetting that the piece is composed
for a contest, which allowed the use of literary text. About the
composition Eurico Nogueira França wrote, that the percussion
instruments, are the same ones of symphonic orchestra: ‘… the
agile use of percussion that sometimes sounds even as soloist,
acquiring melodic value, are some of the elements that make this
atmosphere recognizably ours, without any intention of ostensive
nationalism, and that before we feel these short and incident
themes as ours, because they make an effort in a sense of a continuing,
daring, taming effort, that in our spirit, link that adventure
of the construction of the monumental city in the virgin heart
of Brazil… But the entire piece is remarkable for its simple originality
that has sort of a wasteland aspect and within polyphony of high
technical price, for its wholeness and intimate unit’. And Ayres
de Andrade opines: ‘Being a good apostle of the nationalist aesthetic
planting roots in the traditions of popular music, to these traditions
he (the composer) reoccur with frequency, such circumstance that
the composer does try to dissimulate, seeming to take a certain
pride out of it, but keeping always the care of being original
in the memory of the models where he inspires himself’.
21. The Trio
for violin, violoncello and piano, that he wrote immediately after
finishing writing Brasilia and equally intended to a competition,
in the end from 1960, continues in the characterization line of
the living colors. It worthwhile to transcribe the excerpt of
the reviewer Andrade Muricy: ‘Serious Piece, of strong colors,
and that I judge as of a rare artisan domain, among our composers.
Over all noteworthy for having known how to avoid the picturesque
itself, the effectism of the popularesca seduction’.
22. He stopped composing
for a period of seven years. Already living in Rio De Janeiro
in 1967, he restarted to compose by writing Sonata N. 2
for piano, that is
a kind of a continuation of the spirit of Brasilia concerning
to the rhythm. But the dynamics seems to flow even better, with
great tension in the faster movements. This treatment somehow
at ease, seems to find better accomplishment in the Sonata for
acoustic guitar, from 1969 - perhaps the first Sonata composed
for this instrument in Brazil.
* * * * *
To abide to the national
thesis at this time of philosophical mistakes, is a humbleness
that requires an inglorious courage. It is like to create a child
in the hope - and only this - that tomorrow he or she becomes
useful to the collectivity.