THE INDIANS OF PETRÓPOLIS
DANCES AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
A Gazeta – São Paulo,
December 19, 1959.
There are dances
in which only the Cabocos (Indians) or Guerreiros
(Warriors) participate: Dança de Caça, the Cabocos
hunting; Dança da Pesca, the Cabocos fishing; Dança
dos Guerreiros, with the Guerreiros. But there is also
the Dança Guerreira, with choreography that simulates
fighting between Cabocos and Guerreiros. Indications
are that this dance is a “sort of game” that is won based on skill,
daring, dexterity, etc., or even “luck.” The Guerreiros target
the adversary’s “stomach,” while the Indians aim for “the chest.”
When one fighter hits another, the latter must “die,” falling onto
the ground. If he does not comply with these rules of the game and
gamesmanship, anything can happen.
not allow the researcher to collect information about the boys’
roles during the descriptive choreography, or about the “extras”
introduced in recent years.
group Estrela do Morin uses all percussion instruments: six Caixas
(snare drums) [three Caixas-de-guerra and three Tarois];
six Pandeiros (tambourines); six Castanetes, played by the
used the Reco-reco and the Tamborim (also tambourine),
as well as the Camisão. The Camisão is a curious type
of low Tamborim, the double bass of the Tamborins;
in Petrópolis it looked like a Pandeiro, about one meter
in diameter. The frame was about ten centimeters high and connected
to another one made of iron to withstand the pressure of the “old
goat” skin. Across the frame a slat supported a handle, at least
twenty centimeters long, that the musician used to hold it against
his stomach. This Camisão was played with a stick slightly
longer and thicker than those normally used on the Caixas-de-guerra.
The Camisão took the place of the Tamborim and later
fell into disuse as well.
Below we show
a march rhythm played on the Camisão. Our source used to
play the instrument and considers this one the most common.
of the Carnival group Destemidos do Morin are virtually all diatonic,
in major or minor. One melody that was documented began in a minor
key but ended in another, which constitutes modulation from the
first degree to the minor fifth. [Possibly the first part of a two-part
melody whose second part was cut or forgotten]. The researcher also
noted a melody based on a major sixth, which could not be clearly
defined but that could be classified either as a tonal melody or
an Afro-Brazilian modal like a Samba.
The songs fit
into two rhythmic categories, Chula and Marcha. The
first resembles the samba’s rhythmic cut, without its variety of
accompaniment. The vocals are sometimes in unison, and other times
a dialogue between the soloist and the chorus. The soloist part
is sung by the Mestre [master of the song], and the chorus
is called the “response.”
Of the songs
documented, the researcher brought “Regresso,” a Carnival song for
when the group is being called back headquarters. All the participants
sing it, in a march rhythm.